Minggu, 23 September 2007

Top 10 Corruptor Political Leaders

“From now on it should be harder fer kleptocrats to steal the public money, and easier for the public to get it’s money back”

Antonio Maria Costa

The World Bank, in partnership with the UN Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC), launched Monday at the UN headquarters in New York an initiative to help developing countries recover assets stolen by corrupt leaders, help invest them in effective development programs and combat safe havens internationally. This institution called the Stolen Asset Recovery (StAR) Initiative focussing on program to “high earning political leaders who have been accused of corruption and stealing from the people’s “. StAR has ranked ten political leaders who have conducted corruption in amazing sum.

Why corruption is enemies of all? Stolen public money can fund social programs and public infrastructure. “ Every $ 100 million recovered could fund full vaccinations for 4 million children,provide water connections for some 250.000 house holds, or funds treatment for over 600.000 people with HIV/AIDS for a full year ". For Soeharto cases, recovered funds can be used to save 120 million poor indonesian citizen, 40 million unemployment, and thousand malnutrition children!

1. Soeharto, Indonesia (1967-1998), $ 15 billion - 35 billion

Suharto (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. He served as a military officer in the Indonesian National Revolution, but is better known as the long-reigning second President of Indonesia, holding the office from 1967 to 1998. By the 1990s, his New Order administration's authoritarian and increasingly corrupt practices had become a source of much discontent. Suharto's almost unquestioned authority over Indonesian affairs slipped dramatically when the Asian financial crisis lowered Indonesians' standard of living and fractured his support among the nation's military, political and civil society institutions. After internal unrest, diplomatic isolation began to drain his support in the mid-to-late 1990s, Suharto was forced to resign from the presidency in May 1998 following mass demonstrations.

After serving as the public face of Indonesia for over 30 years, Suharto now lives his post-presidential years in virtual seclusion. Attempts to try him on charges of genocide have failed due to his failing health. His legacy remains hotly debated and contested both in Indonesia and in foreign-policy debates in the West.

2. Ferdinand E Marcos, Filipina (1972-1986), $ 5 billion -10 billion.

Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was President of the Philippines from 1966 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives (1949-1959) and a member of the Philippine Senate (1959-1965). During World War II he was the leader of the so-called "Ang Maharlika" guerilla force in northern Luzon. In 1963 he became Senate President.

As Philippine president and strongman, his greatest achievement was in the fields of infrastructure development and international diplomacy. However, his administration was marred by massive government corruption, despotism, nepotism, political repression and human rights violations. In 1986 he was removed from power by a massive show of People Power after it was revealed he had invested hundreds of millions of dollars in the United States.

3. Mobutu Sese Seko, Kongo (1965-1997), $ 2 billion -5 billion

Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu, or Mobutu Sese Seko, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965–1997), in which he rose to power after deposing Joseph Kasa-Vubu. Mobutu's legacy remains the subject of debate among Congolese. Some condemn him as a cruel, kleptocratic tyrant.

Others credit him with keeping the country relatively stable and peaceful throughout most of his rule and for providing Zaireans with a sense of national identity and pride. In a country with over 200 tribes, Mobutu was able to maintain order and avert civil war, although at high cost. His legacy can still be felt in Congo today. His legacy internationally is that of an unscrupulous one. He is a constantly recurring theme in 419 scams in emails sent to anybody worldwide. A 419er may claim to be Mobutu's wife, son [43], or daughter and promise a percent of his wealth to the email recipient if the recipient does a few things first, including pay advance fees. Another cause of his unscrupulous legacy abroad is his record on human rights as well as mismanagement of the economy and the institutionalization of corruption.

4. Sani Abacha, Nigeria (1993-1998), $ 2 billion - 5 billion

General Sani Abacha (Kano, 20 September 1943 – Abuja, 8 June 1998) was a Nigerian military leader and politician. He was the de facto President of Nigeria from 1993 to 1998. According to post-Abacha governmental sources, some $3 or $4 billion USD in foreign assets have been traced to Abacha, his family and their representatives, $2.1 billion of which the Nigerian government tentatively came to an agreement with the Abacha family to return, with the quid pro quo being that the Abachas would be allowed to keep the rest of the money.

Although this proposal caused a massive outcry at the time for seeming to reward the theft of public funds, it was subsequently rejected by the late dictator's son, Mohammed Abacha, who continues to maintain that all the assets in question were legitimately acquired. Although in 2002, Abacha's family accepted to return $1.2 billion that was taken from the central bank. Abacha was listed as the world's fourth most corrupt leader in recent history by Transparency International in 2004. Abacha had also literally laughed in the face of any possible sanctions by the United States against his government, arguing that the Americans would not do that on account that the oil companies are taking care of the Republicans and the Congressional Black Caucus takes care of the Democrats, and that all American blacks have a dual loyalty to African leaders.

The names of Sani Abacha and his widow, Maryam, are often used in 419 scams; he is “identified” in scam letters as the source for “money” that does not exist. General Abacha served during the controversial execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa. On 10 November 1995, Saro-Wiwa was hanged by Abacha, resulting in the immediate suspension of Nigeria from the Commonwealth of Nations.

5. Slobodan Milosevic, Serbia/Yugoslavia (1989-2000) $ 1 billion

He was one of the key figures in the Yugoslav wars during the 1990s and Kosovo War in 1999. He was indicted in May 1999, during the Kosovo War, by the UN's International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia for crimes against humanity in Kosovo. Charges of violating the laws or customs of war, grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions in Croatia and Bosnia and genocide in Bosnia were added a year and a half later.

He conceded defeat and resigned after demonstrations, following the disputed presidential election of October 2000. Within nine months of his ousting, he was arrested by security forces in Yugoslavia on charges of corruption whilst in power, and within a very short time, was extradited to stand trial in the The Hague. At the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, Milošević conducted his own defense. He died after five years in prison with just fifty hours of testimony left before the conclusion of the trial. Milošević, who began to suffer from heart ailments, high blood pressure and diabetes after he was imprisoned, died of a heart attack.

6. Jean- Claude Duvalier, Haiti (1971-1986), $ 300 million -800 million

Jean-Claude Duvalier (nicknamed Bébé Doc or Baby Doc) (born July 3, 1951) succeeded his father, François "Papa Doc" Duvalier as the ruler of Haiti from his father's death in 1971 until his overthrow by a popular uprising in 1986. The Duvaliers settled in France. For a time they lived a luxurious life - a villa in the hills of Cannes, two apartments in Paris, a chateau, along with a Ferrari. Although he formally applied for Political Asylum, his request was denied by French authorities and he was subsequently placed under house arrest for some time.

Jean-Claude lost most of his wealth with his 1993 divorce from Michèle. While apparently living in penniless exile, Duvalier does have some supporters, who founded the Francois Duvalier Foundation in 2006 to promote positive aspects of the dictatorship, including the creation of most of Haiti's state institutions and improved access to education for the country's black majority.

7. Alberto Fujimori, Peru (1990-2000), $ 600 million

Throughout his entire political career, Fujimori has been a controversial public figure. Fujimori has been credited by many with restoring macroeconomic stability to Peru after the turbulent presidency of Alan García Pérez (1985-1990) and bringing peace to the country after many years of political violence. However, he has been criticized for adopting an authoritarian leadership style, particularly after dissolving the Peruvian Congress on April 5, 1992.

In late 2000, in the face of mounting scandal, criticism over human rights abuses (including a compulsory sterilization program) and growing instability, he left Peru to attend an APEC summit in Brunei and then continued on to Japan, where he resigned. His resignation was initially transmitted by fax and later officially via the Peruvian Embassy in Tokyo. The Congress of the Republic refused to accept his resignation and removed him from office. It then barred him from holding any elective office for 10 years. In October 2005, he stated he would run in Peru's April 2006 presidential election, despite the 10-year ban. His daughter and former First Lady Keiko Sofía officially registered him in the Peruvian National Electoral Jury on 6 January 2006, but he was officially disqualified on 10 January.

After travelling to Chile, he was detained by Chilean authorities from November 7, 2005 to May 1, 2006, when he was released on condition that he remain in the country. The Peruvian government formally requested his extradition on 3 January 2006 to face human rights and corruption charges and this was rejected on July 11, 2007. Peru filed an appeal to the Supreme Court, which accepted his extradition on September 21, 2007, on human rights and corruption charges. and on September 22 he was extradited to Peru.

8. Pavlo Lazarenko, Ukraina (1996-1997), $ 114 million -200 million

Ukrainian politician and former Prime Minister who, in August 2006, was convicted and sentenced to prison in the United States for money laundering, wire fraud and extortion. Lazarenko was elected to the Verkhovna Rada (parliament) in March 1998, where he headed the parliamentary faction of his political party "Hromada". "Hromada" frequently sided with the parliamentary faction of Oleksandr Moroz. In December, 1998, Lazarenko was detained on money-laundering charges as he crossed by car from France into Switzerland. In a few weeks, he was released on bail in the amount of three million dollars. Meanwhile, details of his arrest in Switzerland led to a political scandal in Ukraine.

Apparently, Lazarenko attempted to cross the Swiss border with a valid Panama passport even though the Ukrainian law prohibits double citizenship. The public uproar was, in part, instigated by Kuchma's administration who pressed for Lazarenko's arrest. The parliament finally acquiesced to waive Lazarenko's parliamentary immunity on February 17, 1999. However, Lazarenko fled the country on the eve of the parliamentary vote.

He initially stopped in Greece, but was later detained in the New York JFK airport on February 20, 1999 on suspicion of illegally entering the United States. Reportedly, Lazarenko had a stack of documents with him, including a Ukrainian diplomatic passport with an outdated U.S. visa, and requested political asylum.

9. Arnoldo Aleman, Nikaragua (1997-2002), $ 100 million

José Arnoldo Alemán Lacayo (born on 23 January 1946, in Managua, Nicaragua) was President of Nicaragua from 1997 to 2002. Alemán was succeeded by his vice president, Enrique Bolaños. Bolaños accused Alemán of widespread corruption and was integral in exposing this alleged corruption throughout the Alemán administration.

The scheme was reported to have involved several members of Arnoldo Aleman’s closest family, including a brother and sister, as well as Alemán’s daughter María Dolores Alemán. Ex–ministers and close friends were also charged, some of which have months ago abandoned the country. However, one of the central figures in the corruption complot, the former Chief of Department of Taxes Byron Jeréz, remains in prison since March on the basis of another charge of corruption. All in all, fourteen persons were charged."

Several times foreign governments have frozen Aleman's bank accounts in those countries and threatened to confiscate the funds. In such cases, his land of defense has been to claim that the funds were not stolen, but that they came from his coffee plantations. Alemán was formally charged in December 2002, and on 7 December 2003 he was sentenced to a 20-year prison term for a string of crimes including money laundering, embezzlement and corruption. During his trial, prosecutors produced evidence showing that he and his wife had made extremely large charges to government credit cards, "including a $13,755 bill for the Ritz Carlton hotel in Bali and $68,506 for hotel expenses and handicrafts in India."

10. Joseph Estrada, Filipina (1998- 2001), $ 78 million -80 million

Joseph Ejercito Estrada, more popularly known as Erap (born Jose Marcelo Ejercito on April 19, 1937), is a popular former film actor in the Philippines and was the 13th President of the Philippines from June 30, 1998 to January 20, 2001. He was peacefully overthrown by the Second People Power Revolution after his aborted impeachment trial in the Senate, where eleven Philippine senators refused to examine the second envelope of the Jose Velarde bank account that would supposedly prove acts of political corruption.

On April 4, 2001, the trial of Estrada began as Ombudsman Aniano Desierto filed before the Sandiganbayan, a Philippine anti-graft court, a PHP 4-billion plunder suit and a minor perjury charge for falsely declaring his assets and illegally using the Jose Velarde alias. On September 12, 2007, he became the first Philippine President to be convicted of a crime after the Sandiganbayan found him guilty of plunder, which is punishable by reclusion perpetua. He is once again detained in his Tanay, Rizal resthouse but his visitors will be strictly admitted.

Cooling the Earth

Technology achievement is amazing. It helps human beings to increase the quality of life by making easier to do something. Since industrialization age until now, so many technology arise. Recent issue arise which make all people aware : global warming ! it is very important issue for human beings to be solved otherwise,our planet will be in big trouble. According scientist, average temperature of the earth would increase 4,50 Celcius by this age.

The solution become a challenge for many scientist. Theories arise to solved it. Recently, scientist offer solutions for global warming matter that is cooling the earth ! sounds crazy idea, but worth enough to try.

1. Geritol Effect.

Throw iron dust to the sea. The iron should grow plankton, part of an algae bloom that will drink up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.The idea of seeding the ocean with iron to beef up a natural plankton and algae system has been tried on a small scale several times since 1990. It has both succeeded and failed. For every ton of iron used, 100,000 tons of carbon will be pulled into the ocean.

2. Man-made volcano

Using jet engines, cannons or balloons to get sulfates in the air, humans could reduce the solar heat, and only increase current sulfur pollution by a small percentage, said Tom Wigley of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. It would take tens of thousands of tons of sulfate to be injected into the air, in stratosfer.

3. Solar umbrella

For far-out concepts, it’s hard to beat Roger Angel’s. Last fall, the University of Arizona astronomer proposed what he called a “sun shade.” It would be a cloud of small Frisbee-like spaceships that go between Earth and the sun and act as an umbrella, reducing heat from the sun. About 800,000 of these would be stacked into each rocket launch. It would take 16 trillion of them — that’s million million — so there would be 20 million launches of rockets.

4. Artificial trees

Scientifically, it’s known as “air capture.” But the instruments being used have been dubbed “artificial trees” even though these devices are about as treelike as a radiator on a stick. They are designed to mimic the role of trees in using carbon dioxide, but early renderings show them looking more like the creation of a tinkering engineer with lots of steel. It would take wind and a lot of energy to power the air capture devices. They would stand tall like cell phone towers on steroids, reaching about 200 feet high with various-sized square filters at the top. The captured carbon dioxide would be changed into a liquid or gas that can be piped away from the air capture devices.

5. Carbon Sequestration

Catch Carbondioxide as muny as possible then converting it into salt and then keep it underground,800 feet below or keep it in deep sea of 9800 feet depth.

Auction for teak named

Buying name for internet domain is usual thing, but buying name for teak tree is unusual. Indonesia state-owned company for forestry, Perum Perhutani, plan to conduct auction for Teak tree in conservation area of Pasar sore forest in Cepu, Blora, Jawa Tengah.

This auction is unique since buyer who interested to buy the tree would not allowed to chop the tree. The Teak would given same name as the name of the buyer. Soon after the teak is sold, the tree would be guard until it naturally died.

The total of the teak tree that would be sold are 1558 trees. All of them are age above 100 years old with 3 M diameter and height of 39 M. one of the teak is bought by local entrepreneur for Rp 1 billion or $110,000.00 ! Quite amazing price. Those teak tree given name Wibowo as the buyer name is Bobby Wibowo. Does the price is expensive? Well, the answer would be depend. For billion who interested to buy the tree, please don’t worry. There are still many teak tree ready to be sold. At least you show how you care to the global warming issues. Any billion interested ?

Selasa, 18 September 2007

10 Easy Arithmetic Tricks

Math can be terrifying for many people. This list will hopefully improve your general knowledge of mathematical tricks and your speed when you need to do math in your head.

1. The 11 Times Trick

We all know the trick when multiplying by ten - add 0 to the end of the number, but did you know there is an equally easy trick for multiplying a two digit number by 11? This is it:

Take the original number and imagine a space between the two digits . In this example we will use 52:


Now add the two numbers together and put them in the middle:


That is it - you have the answer: 572.

If the numbers in the middle add up to a 2 digit number, just insert the second number and add 1 to the first:




1089 - It works every time.

2. Quick Square

If you need to square a 2 digit number ending in 5, you can do so very easily with this trick. Mulitply the first digit by itself + 1, and put 25 on the end. That is all!

252 = (2x(2+1)) & 25

2 x 3 = 6


3. Multiply by 5

Most people memorize the 5 times tables very easily, but when you get in to larger numbers it gets more complex - or does it? This trick is super easy.

Take any number, then divide it by 2 (in other words, halve the number). If the result is whole, add a 0 at the end. If it is not, ignore the remainder and add a 5 at the end. It works everytime:

2682 x 5 = (2682 / 2) & 5 or 0

2682 / 2 = 1341 (whole number so add 0)


Let’s try another:

5887 x 5

2943.5 (fractional number (ignore remainder, add 5)



4. Multiply by 9

This one is simple - to multiple any number between 1 and 9 by 9 hold both hands in front of your face - drop the finger that corresponds to the number you are multiplying (for example 9×3 - drop your third finger) - count the fingers before the dropped finger (in the case of 9×3 it is 2) then count the numbers after (in this case 7) - the answer is 27.

5. Multiply by 4

This is a very simple trick which may appear obvious to some, but to others it is not. The trick is to simply multiply by two, then multiply by two again:

58 x 4 = (58 x 2) + (58 x 2) = (116) + (116) = 232

6. Calculate a Tip

If you need to leave a 15% tip, here is the easy way to do it. Work out 10% (divide the number by 10) - then add that number to half its value and you have your answer:

15% of $25 = (10% of 25) + ((10% of 25) / 2)

$2.50 + $1.25 = $3.75

7. Tough Multiplication

If you have a large number to multiply and one of the numbers is even, you can easily subdivide to get to the answer:

32 x 125, is the same as:
16 x 250 is the same as:
8 x 500 is the same as:
4 x 1000 = 4,000

8. Dividing by 5

Dividing a large number by five is actually very simple. All you do is multiply by 2 and move the decimal point:

195 / 5

Step1: 195 * 2 = 390
Step2: Move the decimal: 39.0 or just 39

2978 / 5

step 1: 2978 * 2 = 5956
Step2: 595.6

9. Subtracting from 1,000

To subtract a large number from 1,000 you can use this basic rule: subtract all but the last number from 9, then subtract the last number from 10:


step1: subtract 6 from 9 = 3
step2: subtract 4 from 9 = 5
step3: subtract 8 from 10 = 2

answer: 352

10. Assorted Multiplication Rules

Multiply by 5: Multiply by 10 and divide by 2.
Multiply by 6: Sometimes multiplying by 3 and then 2 is easy.
Multiply by 9: Multiply by 10 and subtract the original number.
Multiply by 12: Multiply by 10 and add twice the original number.
Multiply by 13: Multiply by 3 and add 10 times original number.
Multiply by 14: Multiply by 7 and then multiply by 2
Multiply by 15: Multiply by 10 and add 5 times the original number, as above.
Multiply by 16: You can double four times, if you want to. Or you can multiply by 8 and then by 2.
Multiply by 17: Multiply by 7 and add 10 times original number.
Multiply by 18: Multiply by 20 and subtract twice the original number (which is obvious from the first step).
Multiply by 19: Multiply by 20 and subtract the original number.
Multiply by 24: Multiply by 8 and then multiply by 3.
Multiply by 27: Multiply by 30 and subtract 3 times the original number (which is obvious from the first step).
Multiply by 45: Multiply by 50 and subtract 5 times the original number (which is obvious from the first step).
Multiply by 90: Multiply by 9 (as above) and put a zero on the right.
Multiply by 98: Multiply by 100 and subtract twice the original number.
Multiply by 99: Multiply by 100 and subtract the original number.

Alex : Smartest African grey Parrot

Alex is a special African grey Parrot. For the last 22 years, Dr. Pepperberg has been teaching Alex to do complex tasks of the sort that only a few nonhuman species -- chimpanzees, for instance -- have been able to perform. But unlike those other creatures, Alex can talk, or at least, he can vocalize. And, Dr. Pepperberg says, Alex doesn't just imitate human speech, as other parrots do -- Alex can think. His actions are not just an instinctive response, she says, but rather a result of reasoning and choice. It can understand 100 words of English language which taught by the owner, Irene Pepperberg.

Alex able to make short conversation such as I want a X or I want to go to Y with certain variation places and things. Beside that, Alex also able to identified 50 things, 7 colour, 5 shape, and counting to six. The owner, phycologist in Brandeis and Harvard Unversity, said that Alex able to show the emotions of 2 years old kids with intelligence of 5 years old kids. To dedicated for her bird, Irene Pepperberg open a website for Alex, http://www.alexfoundation.org. Before Alex died, its spoke You are kind, see you tomorrow, I love you Alex died on its 31 years old.

If you thought being called a bird-brain was an insult, think again. Birds are not only proving far smarter than we ever thought, but studies of bird brains are turning all our notions of what makes intelligence on its head.

Here's some short conversation between Alex and Irene Pepperberg from http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/s569163.htm

Assoc. Prof Irene Pepperberg: What shape?
Alex the bird: Four
Irene: Say more, what shape?
Alex: Corner.
Irene: Four corner, good bird.

Irene: How many?
Alex: Two
Irene: What’s different
Alex: Shape?
Irene: No, that’s what’s same. What’s different?
Alex: Colour.
Irene: Good Bird.

Irene: What colour, what colour bigger?
Alex: Green.
Irene: Very good. That was much better. Do you want something?
Alex: Want nut.

Irene: How many green block?
Boy: Four,
Irene: I don’t think so …
Boy: Five
Irene: That’s right.

Crop Circles: Alien Creation ?

Everybody knows about Crop Circles. But nobody agrees on just who or what is making them, and why they exist for brief times in grain fields all over the world. Often showing intricate geometrical and sometimes occult patterns that are so complex and perfectly patterned, the designs are best seen from the air and suggest hours of labor sometimes accomplished within brief time periods while no one is looking.

That they usually occur under cover of darkness makes the mystery even more astounding. If accomplished by human hand, as many would argue, the abilities of such pranksters to create such profound art without the help of lamps and measuring devices, including a surveyor’s sextant, leaves the observers confounded. There appears to be two primary theories as to the origin of these spectacular artworks that come and go with each growing season. Some say they are an emerging art form; a contemporary graffiti that one writer in National Geographic suggests “will be written about in future art history books as the most remarkable artistic innovation to emerge from the Twentieth Century.”

The second theory is that they are mysterious messages from extraterrestrials, created by unknown technology from alien craft passing overhead in the night sky. One thought is that because of their brief existence, the circles might be markers for time travelers, giving exact dates in which to land. Whether they existed prior to the first stories about them in southern England in the mid-1970s is not known. The first media records of designs in grain fields showed relatively simple formations appearing overnight in the area already known as home for some of the strangest Neolithic sites in the world including Stonehenge, Avebury and Silbury Hill.

In every case the crops are flattened and the stalks bent, but not broken. The phenomenon seemed to gain momentum after the initial stories were told. Now the formations are showing up in fields in Australia, South Africa, The United States, Russia, and China. They are just about anywhere that farmers grow crops and that the field can be altered so that an image is clearly visible from the air. And each year, the centerpiece of the circle art appears to continue to be in the fields of southern England, where more than 100 formations appear each season. While simplistic at first, the designs have been growing in complexity until they are getting downright sensational in their appearance.

Sometimes it seems sad to realize that their existence can only last but a few days until nature returns to normal or until the crop is harvested. The UFO theories were set back in 1991 when Doug Bower and Dave Chorley claimed responsibility for the crop circles in England. Bower was found to have a group of people known as the Circlemakers, who designed their mischief before stealing off in the night to create yet a new and more intricate design. Supporters of the human manufacturing theory suggest that many groups like that of Bower and Chorley must exist all over the world, all doing their covert work in the dead of night.

On the other side of the coin, the study of the circles by dedicated UFO-believers, has become a science in itself. The students have evolved into a thriving cottage industry of sightings, measurements, speculations and publications. The serious enthusiasts call themselves cereologists, taking the name of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture. The first deformations appeared as simple, nearly perfect circles of grain flattened in a spiral pattern.

But as the years have passed, the patterns now consist of circles in groups, circles inside rings or circles with spurs and other appendages. Retired astronomer Gerald S. Hawkins has noted something interesting about the designs that could only be appreciated by dedicated mathematicians. He notes that a number of ingenious and previously unknown geometric theorems are showing up in what he calls “artwork in the crops.” Using data from published ground surveys and aerial photographs, Hawkins measured the dimensions and calculated the ratios of the diameters and other key features in 18 different patterns that included more than one circle or ring. In 11 of the patterns, Hawkins found ratios of small whole numbers that precisely matched the ratios defining the diatonic scale. These ratios produce the eight notes of an octave in the musical scale corresponding to the white keys on a piano. The discovery prompted Hawkins to look for and find geometric relationships among the circles, rings and lines of other distinctive patterns. His first theorem was found in a triplet of crop circles found in 1988. He noticed he could draw three straight lines, or tangents, that touched all three circles. By drawing in the equilateral triangle formed by the circles’ centers and adding a large circle centered on this triangle, he proved the theorem that reads: “The radio of the diameter of the triangle’s circumscribed circle to the diameter of the circles at each corner is 4:3.”

Since that discovery, Hawkins claims three more geometric theorems, all involving diatonic ratios arising from the radios of areas of circles among crop-circle patterns. Amazingly, Hawkins could find none of the theorems in the works of Euclid, the famed Greek geometer who established the basic techniques and rules for Euclidean geometry. He also failed to find the crop-circle theorems in any of the mathematics textbooks and references that he consulted. Thus Hawkins appears to have proved that either the artists are amazingly skilled in creative geometry or that the circles he examined were the creations of beings from out of this world. In conclusion, all that this writer can say about crop circles it that they remain a true enigma of our time.

Selasa, 11 September 2007

Brain Teaser : Weird or Fun ?

A brain teaser is a form of puzzle that involves a lot of thinking (mental/cognitive activity). Normally, this includes thinking in conventional ways with given constraints in mind; sometimes, it also involves lateral thinking. The difficulty of many brain teasers relies on a certain degree of fallacy in human intuitiveness.

This is most common in brain teasers relating to conditional probability, because the casual human mind tends to consider absolute probability instead. The brain is not a passive recipient of learning. In order to learn new information the brain must be able to focus on important cues and hold them in its short-term memory. Is it weird? However it's fun enough. Try some of the test below!


There are 11 faces in this picture. Most people find 4 or 5 of them. If you find 8 of them, you have an extraordinary sense of observation. If you find 9 of them, you have a sense of observation above the average. If you find 10 faces you are a very good observer. If you find 10 faces you are extremely observant.


Sit in front of the screen and look at the dot. Move your head forward and back, repeat

Move your slide bar up and down. The question is, inset actually move ?


Look at the chart and say the COLOR not the word !
Your right brain tries to say the color but
Your left brain insists on reading the word




















All the squares are the same size - check for your self


The question is, where the lines cross do you see a white dot or a black dot ?

Minggu, 09 September 2007

Best Islands In the World

From all over beautiful tourism destination, here are list of top 10 beautiful islands in the world in 2007 based on poll conducted by travel and leisure magazine (www.travelandleisure.com).

1. Bali (Indonesia)

Bali is one of over 13,000 islands in the Indonesian archipelago and is located just over 2 kilometres from the eastern tip of the island of Java and west of the island of Lombok. The island home of approximately 4 million people is approximately 144 kilometres from east to west and 80 kilometres north to south. The islands varied landscape of hills and mountains, rugged coastlines and sandy beaches, lush rice terraces and barren volcanic hillsides provide a picturesque backdrop to the colourful and deeply spiritual culture of this 'Island of The Gods

Attracting more than 3 million visitors annually, Bali is the engine of Indonesia’s $5 billion-per-year tourism industry, which, after oil and gas, is the country’s second-largest foreign-exchange earner. That distinction, and the fact that most of Bali’s 3.4 million inhabitants are Hindu, has attracted Islamic jihadists looking to sow unrest in the world’s most populous Muslim nation.

The word paradise is used a lot in Bali, and not without reason. The combination of friendly, hospitable people, a magnificently visual culture infused with spirituality and (not least) spectacular beaches with great surfing and diving have made Bali Indonesia's unparalleled number one tourist attraction. Eighty percent of international visitors to Indonesia visit Bali and Bali alone. The popularity is not without its flip sides — once paradisaical Kuta has degenerated into a congested warren of concrete, touts and scammers live on overcharging tourists, and the island's visibility has even drawn the unwanted attention of terrorists in 2002 and 2005 — but Bali has managed to retain its magic. Bali is a wonderful destination with something for everyone, and though heavily traveled, it is still easy to find some peace and quiet if you like

2.Maui (State of Hawai)

The island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles (1883.5 km²). Maui is part of the State of Hawaiʻi and is the largest island in Maui County. Three other islands, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, and Molokaʻi belong to Maui County. Together, the four islands are known as Maui Nui.

It's been said many times. Maui no ka 'oi. Maui is the best. Any resident of Maui—in fact, many people in Hawaii—will tell you this. But don't just take an islander's word for it. Ask the tony readership of Conde Nast Traveler, whose Reader's Choice Poll named Maui the Best Island in the World twelve out of the last thirteen years, and the Best Pacific Island for sixteen straight years. Truly, Maui's charm is universal.

Maui has a population of about 150,000 people, about the same as the Big Island but in a fraction of the area. Shaped like a figure eight (or a lopsided dumbbell), Haleakala takes up the lion's share of the east side of the island, while the West Maui Mountains, the remnant of an extinct volcano, is on the west. The area between the two volcanoes gives the island its nickname: The Valley Isle.

3. Kauai (State of Hawai)

Kauai (or, more properly, Kaua'i) [1] is the northwesternmost and oldest of Hawaii's major islands. Called the Garden Island, it is covered with lush greenery and tropical plants, watered regularly by abundant rainfall. As the oldest of the islands, it has been changed the most by the forces of erosion, and this has resulted in natural wonders such as Waimea Canyon and the Na Pali Coast. It is also home to more sandy beaches than any other major island in the Hawaiian chain.

The major regions of Kaua`i can be defined by their location on the island relative to the prevailing trade winds. The north and east sides of the island are on the "windward" side of the island, where the winds blow onto the shore. These parts of the island tend to get the most rain, and as a result, are the greenest and most tropical parts of the island. The south and west sides of the island are on the "leeward" side of the island, which tends to be sunnier and drier, since most clouds have already dropped their rain on the windward side of the island.

However, all parts of the island have points of interest for all visitors. Both the rainy and dry sides of the island have fine resorts and beautiful beaches.

4. Galapagos Islands ( Ecuador)

The Galapagos Islands are a small archipelago of islands belonging to Ecuador in the western Pacific Ocean. The islands are quite remote and isolated, lying some 1000 km (620 miles) west of the South American continent. The Galapagos archipelago consists of 13 main islands and 6 smaller isles, which together embrace some 50,000 sq km (19,500 sq miles) of ocean. The Galápagos archipelago is world-renowned for its unique and fearless wildlife - much of which was inspiration for Charles Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection.

The islands are therefore very popular amongst natural historians, both professional and amateur. Giant tortoises, sea lions, penguins, marine iguanas and different bird species can all be seen and approached. The landscape of the islands is relatively barren and volcanic, but beautiful nonetheless.Strict controls on tourist access are maintained in an effort to protect the natural habitats and all visitors must be accompanied by a national park-certified naturalist tour guide.

The islands currently receive an average of 60,000 visitors per year. Sadly most visitors simply take a boat tour and then depart, allowing very little money to flow to local inhabitants. By extending a stay in Puerto Ayora or elsewhere it helps add money to the local economy and demonstrates to locals the value of the park and the need to end illegal fishing and polluting.

5. Santorini (Greek)

Santorini is a volcanic island in the Cyclades group of the Greek islands. It is located between Ios and Anafi islands. It is famous for dramatic views, stunning sunsets from Oia town, the strange white aubergine, the town of Thira and naturally its very own active volcano. There are naturally fantastic beaches such as the beach of Perissa, maybe the best beach in Santorini, the black pebble beach of Kamari, white beach and red beach.
The main attraction of Santorini is the volcano. The caldera was flooded during a cataclysmic event thousands of years ago, leaving the cliffs of Santorini surrounding a lake of ocean and newly upthrust lava in the center. The towns of Fira, Oia and Thirasis cling to the steep cliffs facing into the caldera bay. Tours to the volcano center are plentiful and one can see and feel steam vents and recent (1950s) lava flows. Another popular reason for coming to Santorini is the legend that its sunsets are one of the most spectacular in the world. Ia is one of the few places on the island which is both close to a sea and offers a good view to a sunset over the sea: in other towns, the sun disappears behind the volcano.

Santorini island could be divided into two parts, the western side of the island and the eastern. Santorini mainly owes its popularity to the western side. This is where the caldera is, and the villages, like Fira and Oia, that are built on the cliff. On this side of Santorini most hotels have terrific views of the caldera, volcano, the sea and sunsets. There is of course a drawback that you have to keep in mind before making your reservation. The majority of the hotels built on the caldera have many stairs, which is usually annoying for tourists not willing to climb up and down all the time. Some of them do not accept children under 13, because they do not offer any childrens' facilities, due to their dangerous location on the cliff. There are hotels that are specially oriented to couples and honeymooners. Most of Santorini luxury resorts can be found on the western side of the island. Note that not all hotels which are on the western side of the island offer views, as some of them are located in town.

6. Vancouver Island (Canada)

Vancouver Island is part of British Columbia, Canada. As well as the island itself, it is also a region which includes the Gulf Islands in the Strait of Georgia. It is often referred to by the locals as simply 'The Island'. Vancouver Island is the largest island off the west coast of North America at about 450km long and up to about 90km wide. It has a population of over 700,000 people, with a little less than half of those living in the Greater Victoria area. The development on the island primarily follows the north-south highway that goes along the east coast of the island from Victoria to Port Hardy.

The most common way to get to Vancouver Island is by BC Ferries. There is regular ferry service from Tsawwassen (near Vancouver) to Swartz Bay (Near Victoria), Tsawwassen to Duke Point (near Nanaimo) and Horseshoe Bay (Near Vancouver) to Departure Bay (in Nanaimo). These ferries generally run about every two hours with more frequent service on some of the routes in the summer.
The easiest way to travel around Vancouver Island is to drive.Go on a hiking or walking nature tour of ancient rainforests with their giant trees, visit alpine meadows and lakes or stroll along colourful sea side tide pools. Try bird watching or wildlife viewing in the area's diverse ecosystems. A mild climate means year round tour opportunities including winter surfing, storm watching, mountain skiing and fall salmon viewing into December. Journey on a whale watching or grizzly bear tour.

7. Dalmatian Islands, Croatia (Hvar rated separately)

The Croatian Adriatic Coast with its 1185 islands, islets and reefs is one of the most impressive coastlines in Europe.Summer holiday at the sea, swimming, fishing, diving, mountain hiking or just laying in the sun - all this and a lot more Dalmatian islands have to offer their visitors.
Tranquil coves, stunning islands, typical Mediterranean villages clinging to steep valley sides and bustling harbours make the Dalmatian islands a must for any traveller to Croatia. With direct flights from Ireland, the islands offer visitors an opportunity to take their holiday in areas of unsurpassed beauty.

Clean beaches and clear seawater, thousands of bays and islands, water temperatures over 25°C, wonderful landscapes - these are the reasons why most holiday travellers travel to the Adriatic Sea in summer. For most summer - holiday travellers July and August are the ideal months for swimming. The Adriatic Sea also has its charms in the off-season. You can already swim in May, and September, even in October. The average water temperatures are over 20°C.

Brac is the largest of the Dalmatian Islands. You can reach Supetar, the capital of the island, by ferry (45mins from Split). Ferries run during the summer 12 times a day. The well indented coast has numerous bays with sand and pebble beaches, foremost of which is the famous Golden Cape beach at Bol, where some of our hotels are situated. The interior is abundant with vineyards, pine woods and olive groves. Brac is also famed for its white stone, used in the construction of the palace of Diocletian in Split and the White House in Washington DC.

8. Phuket (Thailand)

Phuket is the most visited tourist spot in Thailand; it attracts more than 3 million visitors annually. Thailand's largest island is a wonderland of wildlife and rainforest fringed by white sand beaches with some of the world's premier resorts. In the Andaman Sea off Thailand's west coast, Phuket, or the 'Pearl of the South' as it has become known, is connected to the mainland by the Sarasin Bridge. Phuket also has its own airport, little over an hour's flight from Bangkok.

Although the island hosts thousands of tourists in peak season and has a population of 1.6 million, its sheer size allows visitors to escape from the madding crowds. Phuket Town is the administrative centre of Phuket Province, and the island's main population centre. Phuket is hot and humid throughout the year. The high season is generally considered to
be from November to May. During the summer monsoon season, mornings and afternoons are still sunny and clear, but it tends to rain in the evenings and water clarity goes down.

Locals consider May to October the "cool" season, and the weather is quite tolerable, much more so than in the tourism centers around the Gulf coast. It's comparable to Florida's summer weather in temperature and intensity of rain storms: 25-33 deg C, flying clouds, short and thunderous rainfalls in the afternoons and evenings. Surfing is possible off the western beaches.Phuket might not have the historical sites that Bangkok and Chiang Mai have, but it does have a few. Most visitors spend their time at the beaches and in the bars. The most heavily-hyped attraction is the Phuket Fantasea show at Kamala Beach, a self-proclaimed "cultural theme park", but comparisons to Disneyland are exaggerated at best. Phuket's limestone cliffs and palm-fringed tropical beaches are its biggest attractions.
Each of Phuket's many beaches has a character and charm of its own and is separated from its neighbours by picturesque headlands. From busy fun beaches, to secluded coves of fine white sand, there is bound to be at least one to suit the mood and mindset of every visitor to the island. Phuket also features a rich cultural heritage that derives from it's unique mix of people who come not only from Southern Thailand, but also from all regions of Thailand, neighbouring countries, and travellers from afar who have settled over the years.

9. Hawaii (USA)

Situated nearly at the center of the north Pacific Ocean, Hawaii marks the northeast corner of Polynesia. While it was once a major hub for the whaling, sugar and pineapple industries, it is now economically dependent on tourism and the U.S. military. The natural beauty of the islands continues to be one of Hawaii's greatest assets.

Hawaii is an archipelago of over nineteen distinct volcanic islands located over a geological "hot spot" in the Pacific. The Pacific plate on which the islands ride moves to the northwest, so in general the islands are older and smaller (due to erosion) as you move from southeast to northwest. There are eight major islands, six of which are open to tourism.

Where tourism is concerned, Hawaii has something for everyone. The island of Oahu, the most populous and home to the state capital and largest city of Honolulu, is great for people who wish to experience the islands and still keep the conveniences of a large city. Rainforests and hiking trails are located just minutes from Waikiki Beach, one of the world's best tourist destinations. In the winter, large waves on Oahu's north shore turn the normally sleepy area into the surfing capital of the world.

On the other hand, those who wish to experience Hawaii at a slower pace would do well to visit one of the Neighbor Islands (the other, less populated islands around Oahu). All the neighbor islands offer opportunities to relax and enjoy the sun and scenery. Many of the natural wonders of the Islands are located on the Neighbor Islands, from Waimea Canyon on Kauai, to Haleakala on Maui, to Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on the Big Island of Hawaii. Numerous waterfalls and rainforests evoke memories of what the islands might have looked like before major corporations set their sights on Hawaii.

10. Great Barrier Reef ( Queensland, Australia)

Australia's Great Barrier Reef is mind-blowingly bountiful in coral, cockatoos—and high-end private-island resorts. A solitude-seeking beachcomber with a jones for comfort has many, many options. Christopher Petkanas surveys the scene

The Great Barrier Reef is a coral formation, the largest such in the entire world, located off the Pacific coast of Queensland, Australia. It is home to a spectacular array of marine life and offers awesome diving opportunities.

Last year, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site measuring 135,000 square miles, was dramatically and triumphantly rezoned by the Australian federal government. The proportion of closely monitored green zones—marine sanctuaries where fishing and other "acquisitional" or "extractive" activities are prohibited—shot from a mere 4.5 to 33 percent of the entire park. Snorkelers, divers, yachties, greenies, rejoice.

The Great Barrier Reef is a famed diving destination, although divers with experience of the tropics find parts of it overused and damaged. Most travellers learn to dive in Townsville, Cairns or Port Douglas: all have a very competitive dive industry. Most students prefer to do a two day pool and classroom course, followed by a two or three day liveaboard visiting the reef to the east of Cairns. It's possible to learn with some of the operators that travel to the Coral Sea, but check first about the difficulty of their dive sites